Ellis and Langridge, ranked 22nd in the world, beat Endo and Hayakawa 21-19 21-17 to set up a semi-final clash with China’s fourth seeds Fu Haifeng and Zhang Nan.
“If you had told me before the start that we would make the semi-finals I would have bitten your hand off,” Langridge told the BBC.
"It is amazing - we are one of these pairs that are quite up and down - but this tournament we have shown our ability."
China's Chen takes badminton title to leave Lee heartbroken again
Haifeng and Nan came from a set down to beat third-seeded Kim Ki-Jung and Kim Sa-Rang 11-21 21-18 24-22.
BADMINTON MEN'S DOUBLES QUARTERFINAL RESULTS
V Shem Goh/Wee Kiong Tan (Malaysia) beat 1-Lee Yong-Dae/Yoo Yeon-Seong (South Korea) 17-21 21-18 21-19
4-Fu Haifeng/Zhang Nan (China) beat 3-Kim Ki-Jung/Kim Sa-Rang (South Korea) 11-21 21-18 24-22
Marcus Ellis/Chris Langridge (Britain) beat Hiroyuki Endo/Kenichi Hayakawa (Japan) 21-19 21-17
Chai Biao/Hong Wei (China) beat Vladimir Ivanov/Ivan Sozonov (Russia) 21-13 16-21 21-16
GB badminton duo Ellis and Langridge bag bronze after beating Chinese pair
Indonesia beat Malaysia for mixed doubles gold