Burke was part of the British quartets that won gold in the team pursuit at London 2012 and Rio 2016, riding alongside the likes of Bradley Wiggins and Geraint Thomas.
He also won bronze in the individual pursuit at Beijing 2008.
"Firstly, I would like to thank all of my team mates throughout the Great Britain Cycling Team," Burke said.
"I have enjoyed working with them all. It has been an epic journey achieving Olympic gold with Geraint Thomas, Brad Wiggins, Pete Kennaugh, Owain Doull and Ed Clancy and I will look back on some great moments with them.
"Looking back on my career, I can only be proud of becoming an Olympic, world and European champion, achieving all I’ve wanted to in red, white and blue with my mates."
Rio 2016 - Steven Burke (GBR) of Britain, Owain Doull (GBR) of Britain, Ed Clancy (GBR) of Britain and Bradley Wiggins (GBR) of Britain
Image credit: Reuters
Burke burst onto the international scene aged 20 when he struck bronze in Beijing in the individual pursuit, an event won by teammate Wiggins.
But his greatest successes came in the four-man pursuit squad – first with Ed Clancy, Peter Kennaugh and Thomas in London, then alongside Owain Doull, Wiggins and Clancy again in Rio.
"Steven Burke is an incredible rider and has been a mainstay of our team pursuit squad in both the academy line-up and the podium line-up, where he won two Olympic gold medals and broke the world records that stood at that time," said British Cycling performance director Stephen Park.
"Even in his junior and under-23 days on the squad, Burke was up there winning medals for the team on the international stage.
"In 2008, he was a reserve rider on the Olympic squad and he was able to step in and turn this into a bronze medal at such a young age which is applaudable and a sign of Steve’s tenacity as a bike rider."