Laugher, 23, recorded a score of 414.60 to finish in first place, his first victory in the event at the European Championships.
And fellow Brit James Heatly secured the bronze with Giovanni Tocci of Italy taking silver.
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Laugher traditionally excels in the 3m event, winning gold in Rio two years ago, but has now added to the two European medals he won in London in 2016.
His predictable win followed a rather less expected victory for the new British pairing of Lois Toulson and 15-year-old Eden Cheng, who took the synchronised 10m platform title in dramatic fashion.
In only their second competition together, the pair had been lying fifth with two rounds left only to produce two magnificent dives to shoot into the gold medal position as their opponents faltered.
Another 15-year-old, Ekaterina Beliaeva and Iuliia Timoshinina of Russia had been in pole position but made a hash of their final effort and ended with silver on 288.60 points to the Britons' 289.74.
"I definitely wasn't expecting this, we've only been put together this year so we're both really happy," said Toulson, a relative veteran at 18 compared to Cheng, who was striking gold at the equivalent junior event this time last year.
"I'm lost for words. Lois kept me going out there," said Cheng. "I was nervous throughout before and didn't even know the score until Lois told me we'd won."
The 23-year-old Laugher, who in 2016 became Britain's first Olympic diving champion along with his 3m springboard synchro partner Chris Mears in Rio de Janeiro, dominated his competition without having to extend himself.