The 15-year-old followed up her Skate America success by coming out on top in the fourth event of the ISU Grand Prix of Figure Skating in Chongqing after landing two quad Lutzes.
She won the free skate ahead of compatriot Elizaveta Tuktamysheva and Japan's Satoko Miyahara to become the first woman to book her place at next month's Grand Prix Final in Turin.
Miyahara's third place finish in the free skate was enough to seal second place on the podium overall, more than 10 points behind Shcherbakova, with Tuktamysheva in third.
Elsewhere, Victoria Sinitsina and Nikita Katsalapov managed to hold on to take victory in the ice dance after finishing second in the free dance behind Madison Chock and Evan Bates.
The Russians had a five-point lead from the rhythm dance and despite the American pairing scoring a career-best 128.21 in the free dance, Sinitsina and Katsalapov's total of 209.90 was enough.
Chock and Bates finished second with an overall total of 208.55 while Canadian duo Laurence Fournier Beaudry and Nikolaj Sorensen consolidated third, finishing with 190.74.
Meanwhile, Jin Boyang stormed to his first Grand Prix of Figure Skating win in Chongqing after the Chinese star overhauled compatriot Yan Han with a superior free skate.
Trailing Han overnight after the short programme, the 22-year-old completed two immaculate quad jumps to thrill the home fans on his way to victory as Matteo Rizzo completed the podium.
Jin's spectacular finale saw him compile an overall total of 176.10, with Han taking second with his tally of 162.99 and Rizzo taking third after finishing fourth in the free skate.
The action concluded with home favourites Sui Wenjing and Hang Cong, the reigning world champions, completing victory in the pairs short programme.
The Chinese duo won the free skate finale ahead of compatriots Peng Cheng and Jin Yang to take overall victory with 228.37 points ahead of the same pairing (199.97).
Canada's Lubov Ilyushechkina and Charlie Bilodeau were third in the free skate, ensuring they completed the podium with a final tally of 190.73 points.