The world champions face Albania and Andorra this month and Didier Deschamps was forced into finding a replacement for Pogba after the Manchester United midfielder sustained an ankle injury during his side's 1-1 draw with Southampton at the weekend.
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Guendouzi, 20, has been in impressive form for the Gunners under Unai Emery, and was praised for his display in Sunday's north London derby against Tottotenham, which finished 2-2.
The youngster has been a regular for France's Under 21s since joining Arsenal, but has never previously been called up to the senior side.
Alexandre Lacazette celebrates scoring with Matteo Guendouzi
Image credit: Getty Images
Guendouzi has started all four of Arsenal’s matches in the Premier League so far this campaign and assisted Pierre-Emerick Aubameyang for his side's equaliser at the Emirates Stadium.
France host Albania at the Stade de France on Saturday and return to face Andorra the following Tuesday. Les Bleus are top of Group H with nine points from four games.
Goalkeepers: Alphonse Areola (PSG), Hugo Lloris (Tottenham), Mike Maignan (Lille)
Defenders: Léo Dubois (Lyon), Benjamin Pavard (Bayern Munich), Clément Lenglet (Barcelona), Aymeric Laporte (Manchester City), Kurt Zouma (Chelsea), Raphaël Varane (Real Madrid), Lucas Hernandez (Bayern Munich), Lucas Digne (Everton)
Midfielders: Blaise Matuidi (Juventus), Steven Nzonzi (Galatasaray), Matteo Guendouzi (Arsenal), Moussa Sissoko (Tottenham), Corentin Tolisso (Bayern Munich)
Forwards: Wissam Ben Yedder (AS Monaco), Kingsley Coman (Bayern Munich), Nabil Fékir (Real Betis), Olivier Giroud (Chelsea), Antoine Griezmann (Barcelona), Jonathan Ikoné (Lille), Thomas Lemar (Atletico Madrid)