Marcus Rashford and Mason Mount were on target as England leapfrogged Belgium in League A Group Two with a narrow victory over Roberto Martinez's side at Wembley.
Gareth Southgate made nine changes to the side that defeated Wales on Thursday night, with Kieran Trippier and debut goalscorer Dominic Calvert-Lewin the only survivors.
Despite making a bright start to the game, England found themselves behind with just 16 minutes on the clock courtesy of Romelu Lukaku, who slotted a confident penalty past goalkeeper Jordan Pickford after he was upended by Eric Dier. Yannick Carrasco had a goal chalked off for offside just five minutes earlier, as the adventurous Belgium threatened to run riot.
England drew level against the run of play before the half-time whistle, with Rashford emphatically scoring from the spot following Thomas Meunier's foul on Jordan Henderson.
The half-time scoreline hardly reflected the performances though, as England's back-three struggled with the movement and physicality of Lukaku, while in the absence of Jack Grealish, failed to threaten in attack.
But the England boss made a small tweak or two at the break which prompted an immediate improvement, and they got their reward in the 64th-minute when Mount's deflected effort gave England the lead.
Carrasco may have restored parity after a beautiful Kevin De Bruyne pass, but England had chances of their own, with substitute Harry Kane and Rashford both spurning gilt-edged opportunities late on. In the end it mattered little as Southgate's side continued their unbeaten run this calendar year to move atop of the group with seven points after three games played, with Belgium a point behind.
TALKING POINT - England dig deep to record morale-boosting victory
There were many aspects of this performance that will have concerned England and on another day they may have suffered defeat. Southgate could have had few complaints had Belgium led by a couple of goals at the break such was their dominance.
But credit where it's due, Southgate - whose starting eleven raised questions - made tactical changes at the break, with the improvement immediately evident and their transformative second-half display ultimately won the game. England cut off the service to Lukaku, dup deep, worked hard and found space at the opposite end to earn an impressive victory over the side ranked the world's number one.
There may have been an element of good fortune about this victory, but with players to return and options all over the pitch, England will now look to build on this morale-boosting triumph.
MAN OF THE MATCH - Mason Mount (England)
Mount's place in the team raised question marks, particularly after a lacklustre first period where England had created next to nothing. But as he so often does for Chelsea, the 21-year popped up in a pocket of space and struck what proved to be the match winner to cap a much-improved second half display.
England: Pickford 6, Walker 6, Maguire 6, Dier 5, Alexander-Arnold 6, Henderson 6, Rice 7, Trippier 7, Mount 8, Rashford 7, Calvert-Lewin 6.. subs: James N/A, Phillips 5, Kane 5, Sancho N/A
Belgium: Mignolet 6, Alderweireld 6, Denayer 6, Boyata 6, Meunier 7, Castagne 7, Witsel 6, Tielemans 7, De Bruyne 8, Carrasco 7, Lukaku 8.. subs: Verschaeren 5, Doku N/A.
16' - GOAL! England 0-1 Belgium (Lukaku, pen): After a shuffle in his run-up, Lukaku slides it into the left corner, sending Pickford the wrong way. It's the first goal Southgate's side have conceded in a year!
39' - GOAL! England 1-1 Belgium (Rashford, pen): With Kane - the usual penalty-taker - on the bench, Rashford takes the responsibility and confidently smashes the ball past Mignolet.
64' - GOAL! England 2-1 Belgium (Mount): Mount pops on the left side of the penalty area and latches onto Trippier's header. He creates the space for a shot and it deflects off Alderweireld as it loops up into the top right corner. England are ahead!
82' - Miss! Mount wins a corner for the hosts and Kane misses the chance to seal the deal for England! He's left unmarked and from six yards he glances his header well wide!
85' - Close! And now Rashford spurns a gilt-edged opportunity! Rice drives down the left and centres it for the United forward. But he flashes his shot over the top of the bar!
- England have won 20 of their last 21 competitive home games (losing one), scoring 67 goals while conceding only 10.
- Southgate's side have scored at least twice in their last eight International matches on home soil, the Three Lions' longest such streak since September 2010 (18 in a row).
- Marcus Rashford is the fourth Manchester Untied player to score in four consecutive competitive appearances for England after Bobby Charlton, David Beckham and Wayne Rooney (x2).