Russia's original punishment for being found ‘non compliant’ with WADA’s doping code last year has been reduced from four to two years, meaning the sanctions will last until 16 December 2022.

Russia was suspended from competing in major competitions and blocked from hosting or bidding to stage them, after an investigation found evidence that laboratory data had been manipulated before being handed over.

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The ban blocks Russian teams competing at the events, and it can’t have its flag or anthem represented at competitions.

Russian athletes who can prove they’re clean and have not had any involvement in wrongdoing can compete under a neutral flag.

The suspension does not apply to European Championships, as UEFA is not defined as a “major event organisation”, but the length of the ban means Russia will also miss the 2022 Winter Olympics and Paralympics in Beijing and several other world championships.

Commenting on the ruling, WADA President Witold Bańka said: "WADA is pleased to have won this landmark case. We left no stone unturned in investigating this very complex matter and in presenting our case before CAS.

"The Panel has clearly upheld our findings that the Russian authorities brazenly and illegally manipulated the Moscow Laboratory data in an effort to cover up an institutionalised doping scheme.

In the face of continual resistance and denial from Russia, we clearly proved our case, in accordance with due process. In that regard, this ruling is an important moment for clean sport and athletes all over the world.

"We are, however, disappointed that the CAS Panel did not endorse each and every one of our recommended consequences for the four-year period we requested. We believe they were proportionate and reasonable, but ultimately WADA is not the judge but the prosecutor and we must respect the decision of the Panel.

"These are still the strongest set of consequences ever imposed on any country for doping-related offences and the award clearly endorses the resolute, process-driven approach taken by WADA in dealing effectively with this case."

Russia has been banned from competing as a country in athletics since 2015 and athletes had to compete as neutrals at the 2018 Winter Games in Pyeongchang.

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