The five-times world champion showed little signs of jet lag after flying out of the UK on Monday morning following his 10-8 defeat to Shaun Murphy in the Champion of Champions final in Coventry on Sunday night.
He was always in command against Wilson - a player he beat 10-6 in the first round of this year's World Championship - as runs of 68, 55 and 144 saw him set up a meeting with Joe Perry before breaks of 127, 58 and 56 helped him win five straight frames after dropping the first in a 5-1 win.
Superb plant from O'Sullivan against Hawkins
He will face Barry Hawkins for a quarter-final space.
World champion Mark Selby was forced to endure another final-frame decider against Alan McManus before progressing with a 5-4 victory.
Selby had led 3-1 with runs of 98 and 56 in the third and fourth frames only for the Scotsman to fight back to 4-4, including a break of 66 in the fifth frame.
But Selby dominated the ninth frame to seal a meeting with Mark Williams or Gerard Greene in the last 16.
World number three Judd Trump secured his place in the last 16 with a 5-0 drubbing of Ben Woollaston making breaks of 50, 74, 92 and 64 against a world number 30 who could only contribute 31 points in five frames.
World number 15 Liang Wenbo breezed through to the round of 16 with runs of 79, 67, 64 and 75 enough to secure a meeting with John Higgins the last 16.
Ronnie O'Sullivan 5-2 Gary Wilson
- Kurt Maflin 5-3 Yu De Lu
- Fergal O'Brien 0-5 Mark Allen
- Cao Yupeng 4-5 Jack Lisowski
- Robbie Williams 2-5 Graeme Dott
- Ben Woollaston 0-5 Judd Trump
- Liang Wenbo 5-0 David Gilbert
- Barry Hawkins 5-3 Michael White
- Alan McManus 4-5 Mark Selby
- Ronnie O'Sullivan 5-1 Joe Perry
- Mark Williams 5-0 Gerard Greene
- Luca Brecel 5-0 Jamie Jones
- Martin Gould 5-0 Akani Songsermsawad
- John Higgins 5-1 Zhou Yuelong
- Marco Fu 5-3 Robert Milkins
- Mei Xiwen 5-3 Jimmy Robertson
- Stephen Maguire 5-4 Ali Carter
Fluke plant helps Hawkins against O'Sullivan
O'Sullivan edges astonishing tension-packed frame