The 2010 world champion produced breaks of 62, 93, 59, 86 and 103 in a one-sided win over the local amateur hopeful in the first round of a lucrative 24-man invitational event that boasts a £200,000 winner's cheque from a £725,000 prize fund.
Robertson's reward is a meeting with defending champion Ronnie O'Sullivan, who starts his season on Wednesday, four months after his last competitive match, a 13-9 defeat to Ali Carter in the last 16 of the World Championship.
O'Sullivan's brilliant long green and position play gets fans applauding
Elsewhere, there was a 6-0 win for 2015 world champion Stuart Bingham over Fan Zhengyi with the world number 13 compiling a highest break of 140 in the opening frame, while World Championship semi-finalist Kyren Wilson completed a 6-3 victory over Liang Wenbo boosted by runs of 60, 61, 73, 100 and 88.
Bingham will face the winner of O'Sullivan or Robertson in the last eight after his last-16 opponent Shaun Murphy was forced to withdraw from the tournament baby daughter Molly ill in hospital.
2004 UK champion Stephen Maguire completed a 6-4 win over local amateur Po QingSong having trailed 3-0 with Masters champion Mark Allen fighting back from 4-3 behind to come through against Xiao Guodong with a 6-4 success.
SHANGHAI MASTERS FIRST ROUND (all times BST)
- Ryan Day v Chang Bingyu (Tuesday 2.30am)
- Anthony McGill v Yan Binghtao (Tuesday 2.30am)
SHANGHAI MASTERS LAST 16 DRAW
- Ronnie O'Sullivan v Neil Robertson (Wednesday 1pm)
- Shaun Murphy w/o Stuart Bingham
- Judd Trump v Kyren Wilson (Tuesday 1.30pm)
- John Higgins v Ryan Day or Chang Bingyu (Wednesday 7am)
- Mark Selby v Zhou Yuelong (Tuesday 7:30am)
- Ding Junhui v Mark Allen (Tuesday 1.30pm)
- Barry Hawkins v Stephen Maguire (Tuesday 7.30am)
- Mark Williams v Anthony McGill or Yan Bingtao (Wednesday 7am)