The 23-year-old was in total control of his race from the outset as he controlled the pace and breezed home in 57.89 seconds.
It was the seventh fastest time ever in the distance and Peaty managed it without even breaking into a sweat.
"This is the real me and hopefully tonight I can make a statement again - and then tomorrow, who knows?" he told the BBC.
European Championships
Sjoestroem, Peaty and Efimova end Euros with fourth golds
09/08/2018 AT 18:18
It was a Great Britain 1-2-3 in the event but, given that only the top two performers from each country can progress through to the semi-finals, Ross Murdoch misses out.
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Peaty, whose position was never in doubt as he took the championship record in comfortable fashion, will be joined by Britain's James Wilby in the semis.
The Olympic champion remains unbeaten in the event and is aiming to win his ninth European title.
European Championships
GB's women take bronze in 4x100m medley relay
09/08/2018 AT 17:52
European Championships
Watch Peaty claim fourth gold as GB's men storm to 4x100m medley relay win
09/08/2018 AT 17:12