Prilukov, who shared gold with Italy's Massimiliano Rosolino in Thursday's 400 metres freestyle, seized the lead from Britain's Graeme Smith halfway into the 60-length race in Ireland's National Aquatic Centre and forged away to win the event by more than 10 seconds.
The 19-year-old Russian clocked 14 minutes 31.82 seconds to beat the 14:35.06 mark he set at the last edition of these championships in Riesa, Germany, a year ago.
Smith, the 1996 Olympic bronze medallist, took the silver in 14:42.64, while Rosolino claimed the bronze after clocking 14:47.34 in the morning's heat.
VDH steers Dutch to relay world record
The result was decided from times from two heats for this long-distance event, with no final, and Rosolino celebrated his third place watching and helping broadcast from the media stand.
Germany's Thomas Lurz, third in the second heat, touched in 14:47.54, just 0.20 seconds outside the time set by Rosolino, who now has gold from the 400 freestyle, silver from the 200 individual medley and bronze from the 400 individual medley and 1,500 freestyle.
European record for Britain's Edmond
VDH looking to finish in style