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Gauff announced herself on the world tennis stage with a stunning 6-4 6-4 victory over the seven-time Grand Slam winner last summer, and now takes on the 39-year-old again at Melbourne Park.
Britain's No. 1 Johanna Konta is the 12th seed in Australia and has been drawn to face Ons Jabeur, the world number 85.
Coco Gauff takes on three players by herself
If Konta can overcome a lack of form and fitness she could face Serena Williams in the fourth round. The younger Williams sister is hoping to level Margaret Court's record tally of 24 Grand Slam titles in Melbourne.
The other British players in the main draw have also discovered their fate with Katie Boulter taking on fifth seed Elina Svitolina and Heather Watson facing Kristyna Pliskova.
Ash Barty, the women's top seed and world number one, will be looking to end Australia's 42-year wait for a home champion since the unseeded Chris O'Neill won the title at Kooyong. She takes on Ukraine's Lesia Tsurenko.
Defending champion Naomi Osaka, seeded third, will meet Czech Marie Bouzkova before a potential semi-final showdown with Serena.