Fritz enjoyed plenty of success on his first serve, and prevailed 7-6 (10-8) 6-3 to set up a date with fellow American Sam Querrey in Saturday's Nature Valley International final.
After sealing his victory, Fritz said on court: "Kyle was the better player for a lot of the match but I won the big points.
It was really scrappy, I wasn't hitting the big shots like I normally do but luckily I came through.
"Ever since my first final when I was 18, I've been wanting a tour title so badly, so i just want to capitalise on this chance."
Taylor Fritz beat Kyle Edmund at Eastbourne
Image credit: Getty Images
Both players wore identical kit - a floral shirt with polka dot shorts - and after both held serve in the first set, Edmund surrendered four set points in the tie break before Fritz came out on top to edge in front after 47 minutes.
Edmund was still recovering when he was broken in his first service game of the second set after a sublime backhand cross court. The Brit was in desperate need of a break, but after slamming his shot into the net in the seventh game to fall 5-2 down, the game was up.
In the women's draw, second seed Karolina Pliskova overcame Kiki Bertens 6-1 6-2 to set up a clash in the final with Angelique Kerber after Ons Jabeur withdrew with injury.