The Latvian will face Maria Sharapova or Daria Gavrilova in the quarter-finals in Rome as British number one Konta slumped to a fifth straight defeat against a top-10 player.
The world number 22 Konta led 4-1 in the first set in only 17 minutes, but could not maintain the momentum on her 27th birthday.
Konta played well, but will be concerned about her inability to build upon a promising start.
This was the fourth straight match when she has blown a first-set lead against an opponent ranked inside the world's top 10.
World number one Simona Halep was given a walkover after Madison Keys withdrew due to a rib problem.
Halep will extend her stay as world number one as a result.
Halep needed to reach at least the quarter-finals and go further than world number two Caroline Wozniacki to retain the top-ranking going into the French Open.
Keys, runner-up in Rome in 2016, was unable to take to court because of a right rib injury.
"I felt my rib in my match yesterday and after trying to warm up this morning it was still painful," she said.
Halep, runner-up last year, will play either Sloane Stephens or Caroline Garcia in the last eight
Defending champion Elina Svitolina overcame Russian Daria Kasatkina 0-6 6-3 6-2.
Eighth seed Venus Williams crashed out as she was beaten by Anett Kontaveit in straight sets 6-2, 7-6(3).
Venus struggled to get going and she was broken in the third game as Kontaveit took control of the opening set.
The seven-time Grand Slam winner responded well in the second but Kontaveit forced the game to a tie-break, where she progressed to the next round.